Iconic Photos

Famous, Infamous and Iconic Photos

L’Épuration | Robert Capa

with 10 comments

Iconic Photos reports from a wonderful exhibition in Musée du Quai Branly

chartres-august-18-1944

On Sunday, as rain gently swept across its windows, I strolled through the Quai Branly Museum’s new exhibition, Cheveux Chéris: Frivolités et Trophés (‘Beloved Hair: Trophies and Trifles’). A series of photographs made me pause and ponder: they showed l’épuration (purification or purge) where France rose up against Nazi ‘collaborators’. Taking a cue from the “purification” of Republican women in Spain in the 1930s, French women who slept with the Germans were marched on to public squares and shaved.

Capturing one such grisly humiliation was no other than Robert Capa. On 18th August 1944, just a week before the liberation of Paris, Capa was in Chartres, where a young women who bore a child to a German soldier was shaved bald by a mob, who paraded her through the town with her three-mouth old  child. Back in 1941, 19-year old Simone Touseau had fallen in love with Erich, a German soldier in charge of the local military bookstore. Erich was eventually transferred to the Eastern Front, and invalided back to his native Bavaria. On hearing the news, Simone had volunteered as a nurse in Munich, where she re-met her lover in September 1943. She was repatriated to France in late November 1943, pregnant. (Read more here in French).

In many other towns, scenes were uglier as women were stripped, their heads shaved and their faces painted with swastikas for what many villagers, men and women alike, considered as ‘collaboration horizontale’. This stigmatization of ‘The Shorns’ was, according to Patrick Buisson writing in Années Erotiques, a “reaffirmation of the country’s rights over the women’s bodies and the recovery of male control over women’s sexuality”.

Buisson describes how the Nazi Occupation left the French in a state of what he calls “erotic shock”. Under an atmosphere charged with emotions of triumph, humiliation and suppressed rage, the population found escape in debauchery, exploring “new territories of pleasure” – having sex in cinemas and Metro stations during air-raid alerts. Even Simone de Beauvoir joined in; “It was only in the course of those nights that I discovered the true meaning of the word ‘party’,” she later wrote.  In Germany, French prisoners bedded local girls to take revenge for the rape of the homeland; meanwhile in France, women made themselves available to the invaders, some even encouraged to infect German soldiers as sabotage; in 1942, despite the fact that two million Frenchmen were in prisoner-of-war camps, the French birth rate soared.

These dark years cast a long shadow over France. Its leading newspaper, Le Temps, which had continued its publication during the Occupation, was closed as pourrie (rotten), and was replaced by Le Monde. They also quietly put away their berets, which came to symbolize the Frenchman under a Nazi Empire where everybody had insignia and clothing identifying who they were. As Richard Cobb notes, “the beret had somehow lost its innocence. It had become politically contaminated… henceforth associated with organised killing.”

As for other collaborations, they took on many different shapes and hues. Coco Chanel had a torrid affair with a Nazi officer, with whom she lived at Paris Ritz throughout the Occupation. Jewish Gertrude Stein worked for the Vichy government, translating anti-Semitic speeches by Marshal Philippe Pétain, even comparing Pétain to George Washington. Maurice Chevalier and Édith Piaf sang before French and German audiences. Picasso, whose art was officially banned, continued to paint in his Left Bank apartment. More than two hundred new French films were made, including Marcel Carné’s classic, Les Enfants du paradis. Thousands of books were published by authors as different as the virulent anti-Semite Céline and the anti-Nazis Albert Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre. Publisher Gaston Gallimard let a German-selected editor run his prestigious Nouvelle Revue Française; in turn, he was able to publish books by authors unsympathetic to the Nazis.

So I spent the night reading And The Show Went On: Cultural Life in Nazi-Occupied Paris by Alan Riding. The book begins with a quote by Sir Anthony Eden, who saw both world wars: “If one hasn’t been through the horrors of an occupation by a foreign power, you have no right to pronounce upon what a country does which has been through all that.” He was talking about collaboration, but its messy aftermath perhaps sadly applied as well.

Written by Alex Selwyn-Holmes

December 11, 2012 at 12:32 pm

10 Responses

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  1. Fabulous post containing pointers to books and films I had not known about. Thank you.
    Nb

    clevelandg

    December 11, 2012 at 3:43 pm

  2. Thanks! You might want to consider posting links to the books you mention through an Amazon affiliate link. I bought And the Show Went On because of this post and I would have liked to kick you the $0.12 or whatever :)

    c

    December 11, 2012 at 4:21 pm

  3. Reblogged this on + όψεις and commented:
    Συνενοχή και τιμωρία: η περίπτωση των Γάλλων στο Β’ Παγκόσμιο Πόλεμο

    Ιώτα

    December 11, 2012 at 5:38 pm

  4. There is so much wrong here I don’t know where to start.
    1. The “purification” in the 1930’s by “Republican Women” in Spain, has nothing to do with France in 1944, but that’s okay, you were just setting up your premice that “Republican is bad, anything else is good”.
    2. “Grisly Humiliation”. Being shaved and walked through the streets with your “love-child” while being chided and called names by the population is worse than whipping/stoning/beheading?
    3. Is it really a shock that an invader should be treated as something unwanted, and all those who colaborate with them are not liked? Male control over prostitutes, or it’s women, has nothing to do with a country wanting to maintain it’s distinction from other countries. The distinction of France not being Germany, seems so simply understood, I can’t figure out why anyone would want them to be the same.
    4. The Nazi occupation left France in such a state of “erotic shock”. Duh, the Nazi were Fascists, the French were Socialists. BOTH on the far end (left) of anything resembling a Representative government. They are all Marxists.
    5. (from the same paragraph) Exactly how did French prisoners of war in Germany – “bedded local girls to take revenge for the rape of the homeland” – was that some weekend liberty offered to the French in Germany?
    6, Collaboration – Is that like an agreement between two parties who don’t agree but find a middle ground, or is it like I (my party) win, and I make the rules?

    Eric

    December 24, 2012 at 5:10 am

    • Its the purification OF not BY reputbican women in Spain. Those Republicans were a little to the left of the GOP. Heck try Wikipedia. (I thought to leave this as is but I thought I’d better spell it out — Republicans in Spain were very left communists and anarchists))

      De Gualle would have been somewhat surprised to hear himself described as a socialist, that he was not. Whatever else he was. Generically I do not think that most fascists think of themselves as Marxists either, they hate Marx.

      Collaborator was the term used by the people at the time. So I also miss your point there.

      The rest of the stuff in the original post is interesting enough to send me to the book mentioned to find out more about it.

      lawguy

      January 16, 2013 at 1:22 am

  5. [...] they happened to be there, and what happened next. Particular favourites of mine are his commentary on Robert Capa’s L’Épuration, and Marianne of ‘68, where things aren’t what they seemed. [...]

  6. [...] they happened to be there, and what happened next. Particular favourites of mine are his commentary on Robert Capa’s L’Épuration, and Marianne of ‘68, where things aren’t what they seemed. [...]

  7. Another side of the Edith Piaf story: http://boingboing.net/2008/02/18/edith-piaf-superspy.html

    Moorlock

    March 9, 2013 at 4:15 pm

  8. “Picasso, whose art was officially banned, continued to paint in his Left Bank apartment.”

    I’m baffled why this is listed as a collaboration. By that standard anyone who worked at all in France was a collaborator.

    between4walls

    March 10, 2013 at 8:03 am

  9. Reblogged this on Menningarmiðlun ehf. and commented:
    Viðbrögð almennings við lok síðari heimsstyrjaldarinnar gagnvart “hermannahórunum” þegar þær voru niðurlægðar opinberlega minna að vissu leyti á Ástandið hér á Íslandi. Hér voru “ástandskonurnar” niðurlægðar og margir töldu samveru þeirra með erlendum hermönnum vera ógn og sviksemi við virðingu þjóðarinnar.

    Skúli Sæland

    March 10, 2013 at 11:21 am


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