J. Ross Baughman | Angle

Baughman_Lebanon

One of the perks about having this blog is the emails I have received from famous photographers. One of them came from J. Ross Baughman, whose photos from Rhodesia and the controversy surrounding them we covered a few years ago.

Now his autobiography, Angle, is out and Ross has sent me an advanced copy. This is a man who has lived almost a cinematic life. Ross has prodigious memory, and at times, the book seems to suffer from a surfeit of minutiae – press cuttings are frequently peppered throughout – it
is nonetheless an enjoyable romp through the late-20th century photography in peace and war.

That was an age dominated by foreign wars and widespread discrimination, and Ross has almost Zeligian presence. He turns his lens towards American Nazis, Klansmen, carnival freaks, transvestites, and mental patients; early crude and grisly days of cosmetic surgery are chronicled. He befriends Robin Moore, the author of The Green Berets, and The French Connection; when Israel invaded Lebanon, his byline tantalizingly read, “North of Israeli Lines, Lebanon,” embedded as he was with Palestinian guerrillas operating out of a secret base in the hills north of Israeli positions (photo above). In Grenada, he defied the US Army’s strict embed photography rules.

All of these were among 200 or so photos inside the book; but even his vignettes about censored photos were exciting. In 1983, his photos of drug-abusing teenagers were not allowed to be published under privacy concerns. Later, Time, Inc. (which owns Life Magazine and acquired Baughman’s photos of Billy Price, a Houston industrialist and Nazi memorabilia collector) was sued by the latter for portraying him in negative light, and the photos were pulled.

The book will be interesting to aspiring photographers who want to learn more about how to become a conflict photographer, as well as to those who want to know how the sausage of photography is made – from assignments and censorship to rivalries and criticisms.

In a dining room adjoining the surgery suite of one of Beverly Hill's most celebrated cosmetic surgeons, the office manager slices into her cantaloupe while the facelift for an aging star gets underway next door.
In a dining room adjoining the surgery suite of one of Beverly Hill’s most celebrated cosmetic surgeons, the office manager slices into her cantaloupe while the facelift for an aging star gets underway next door.

J. Ross Baughman | Rhodesia

Here at IP, I am devoted to providing accurate and informative backstories about iconic photos, but sometimes, I simply get things wrong. Here is one of such stories: @aalholmes

In 1977, J. Ross Baughman was documenting the bloody guerrilla war that broke out in Rhodesia as the minority white rule slowly disintegrates there; the attacks on anti-government guerillas were especially fierce and Baughman rode with a cavalry unit, Grey’s Scouts, and captured them torturing prisoners. Baughman remembers:

They force them to line up in push-up stance. They’re holding that position for 45 minutes in the sun, many of them starting to shake violently. Eventually, the first guy fell. They took him around the back of the building, knocked him out and fired a shot into the air. They continued bring men to the back of the building. The poor guy on the end started crying and going crazy and he finally broke and started talking. As it turns out, what he was saying wasn’t true, but the scouts were willing to use it as a lead. It had all the feeling of an eventual massacre. I was afraid that I might see entire villages murdered.

In my original post (June 2010), I posited that journalists don’t usually carry guns, since that meant forfeiture of a journalist’s status  as a neutral noncombatant under international law. I also erroneously claimed that J. Ross Baughman was the first photographer to tote a gun. In his correspondence to me, Mr. Baughman points out:

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Torture in Rhodesia

This post contains some inaccurate information. Mr. Baughman has contacted me to correct it, and I have reposed a more accurate representation here

Journalists don’t usually carry guns because it means forfeiture of a journalist’s status under international law as a neutral noncombatant, and it encourages troops to consider all journalists as fair targets. In the guerrilla war in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in 1977, that convention was abandoned. Some forty foreign correspondents and photographers carried weapons, but the person who started the tradition was J. Ross Baughman of the AP.

The military confiscated most of his film, but he smuggled out three rolls. Baughman, who has infiltrated Nazi and Ku Klux Klan groups in the United States wore a Rhodesian soldier’s uniform, carried a gun and joined a Rhodesian cavalry patrol for two weeks in order to get the pictures. This fact made him ineligible for some photographic awards. The prestigious Overseas Press Club noted there are “so many unresolved questions about [the photos’] authenticity,” and a member of the OPC and picture editor for Time magazine John Durniak stated that “the jury felt the pictures had been posed”. Nonetheless, Baughman won a Pulitzer for the above photograph — thus becoming the youngest photojournalist to ever win the Pulitzer.

In 1965, Ian Smith announced in emotionless tones that Rhodesia had declared independence from Britain rather than bow to pressure from London for concessions toward the black majority; international sanctions followed starting next year. In 1976, under pressure by the United States, Smith acknowledged a need for majority rule, with a slow and grudging acceptance. In those last years of the minority white rule, the attacks on anti-government guerillas were especially fierce. Baughman rode with a cavalry unit, Grey’s Scouts, and took photos of them torturing prisoners.

Baughman remembers: “They force them to line up in push-up stance. They’re holding that position for 45 minutes in the sun, many of them starting to shake violently. Eventually, the first guy fell. They took him around the back of the building, knocked him out and fired a shot into the air. They continued bring men to the back of the building. The poor guy on the end started crying and going crazy and he finally broke and started talking. As it turns out, what he was saying wasn’t true, but the scouts were willing to use it as a lead.”

Three years after Baughman’s pictures, free elections were held in Rhodesia. Robert Mugabe becomes the first prime minster of the new, black-majority-led country, Zimbabwe and would preside over its slide into corruption and decline.